MCQ Biology - Learning Biology through MCQs

Biology Multiple Choice Questions and Answers for Different Competitive Exams

Multiple Choice Questions on Basic Immunology

MCQ on Basic Immunology

Immunology at a glance

1. Injection of anti-venom to a patient for snake bite is an example of

a) Naturally acquired active immunity

b) Artificially acquired active immunity

c) Naturally acquired passive immunity

d) Artificially acquired passive immunity

 

2. Newborns get their antibodies from mothers milk. This is an example of

a) Naturally acquired active immunity

b) Artificially acquired active immunity

c) Naturally acquired passive immunity

d) Artificially acquired passive immunity

 

3. Vaccination is an example of

a) Naturally acquired active immunity

b) Artificially acquired active immunity

c) Naturally acquired passive immunity

d) Artificially acquired passive immunity

 

4. Often patients are immune to diseases like chicken pox once infected. This immunity is an example of

a) Naturally acquired active immunity

b) Artificially acquired active immunity

c) Naturally acquired passive immunity

d) Artificially acquired passive immunity

 

5. Skin is the largest organ in the body and protects us by preventing pathogen entry. This is an example of

a) Naturally acquired innate immunity

b) Artificially acquired adaptive immunity

c) Naturally acquired passive immunity

d) Artificially acquired passive immunity

 

6. All the following comes under non-specific defence mechanism except

a) fever

b) phagocytes

c) cell mediated immunity

d) complement system

 

7. Which of the following is the site of T cell maturation?

a) Bone marrow

b) Thymus

c) Spleen

d) Appendix

 

8. Which of the following immune mechanism is responsible for protecting us from diseases of other species?

a) Active immunity

b) Passive immunity

c) Innate immunity

d) Adaptive immunity

 

9. Primary lymphoid organs include

a) Thymus and spleen

b) Thymus and bone marrow

c) Thymus, bone marrow and spleen

d) Thymus, bone marrow, spleen and lymph nodes

 

10. Activation of B cell receptor by the binding of an epitope result in the formation of

a) plasma cells and T cytotoxic cells

b) memory cells and T cytotoxic cells

c) Plasma cells for antibody production and memory cells for primary response

d) Plasma cells for antibody production and memory cells for secondary response

 

Answers

1. d) Artificially acquired passive immunity

2. c) Naturally acquired passive immunity

3. b) Artificially acquired active immunity

4. a) Naturally acquired active immunity

5. a) Naturally acquired innate immunity

6. c) cell mediated immunity

7. b) Thymus

8. c) Innate immunity

9. b) Thymus and bone marrow

10. d) Plasma cells for antibody production and memory cells for secondary response

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Multiple Choice Questions on Functions of Cell Organelles

1. Oxysomes are ATP synthases present on

a) outer nuclear membrane facing cytoplasm
b) outer mitochondrial membrane facing cytoplasm
c) inner mitochondrial membrane facing matrix
d) inner mitochondrial membrane facing cytoplasm

2. Autophagy and heterophagy are processes associated with the function of
a) nucleus
b)microbodies
c) lysosome
d) mitochondrion

3. Which of the following organelle is involved in lipid metabolism?
a) Golgi apparatus
b) Peroxisomes
c) SER
d) RER

4. Arrange in correct order the function of each organelle 
    i.ribosomes ii. Chloroplast iii. Golgi apparatus iv. Mitochondrion
a) i. Protein synthesis ii. Organic molecule synthesis iii. Secretory centre iv. Beta oxidation
b) i. Protein synthesis ii. Beta oxidation iii. Secretory centre iv. Organic molecule synthesis
c) i. Protein synthesis ii. Secretory centre iii. Beta oxidation iv. Organic molecule synthesis
d) i. Protein synthesis ii. Secretory centre iii. Organic molecule synthesis
 iv. Beta oxidation


5. rRNA synthesis takes place in
a) nucleus
b) mitochondrion
c) nucleolus
d) nucleoplasm

6. Which is the site of cellular respiration in prokaryotes?
a) mitochondrion
b) plasmids
c) plasma membrane
d) cytosol

7. Which of the following organelles contain coding DNA
a) chloroplast and nucleus
b) chloroplast, mitochondrion and nucleus
c) chloroplast, mitochondrion, ribosomes and nucleus
d) chloroplast, mitochondrion, ribosomes, RER and nucleus

8. The organelle that helps in penetration of sperm into egg during fertilization is
a) nucleus
b) peroxisome
c) mitochondrion
d) lysosome

9. Glyoxysomes are organelles involved in
a) conversion of amino acids to proteins
b) conversion of fatty acids to carbohydrates
c) conversion of amino acids to carbohydrates
d) conversion of fatty acids to lipids

10. H2O2 clearance inside the cell is carried out by
a) glyoxysome with enzyme isocitrate lyase
b) peroxisome with enzyme catalase
c) glyoxysome with enzyme catalase
d) peroxisome with enzyme amino oxidase
Answers
1. c) inner mitochondrial membrane facing matrix
2. c) lysosome
3. c) SER
4. i) 1. Protein synthesis ii. Organic molecule synthesis iii. Secretory centre iv. Beta oxidation
5. c) nucleolus
6. c) plasma membrane
7. b) chloroplast, mitochondrion and nucleus
8. d) lysosome
9. b) conversion of fatty acids to carbohydrates
10. b) peroxisome with enzyme catalase
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Multiple Choice Questions on Plant Histology

1. When a tree grows older, the rapid increase in thickness is found in
 a) sap wood
b) heart wood
c) hard wood
d) spring wood

2. Vascular cambium is an example of
a) secondary meristem
b) intercalary meristem
c) lateral meristem
d)primary meristem

3. The waxy substance associated with the walls of trunks of some angiospermic trees is
a) cutin
b) suberin
c) lignin
d) hemicellulose

4. Bicollateral vascular bundles are present in
a) malvaceae
b) gramineae
c) leguminosae
d) cucubitaceae

5. Wounds in plant are healed by the activity of
a) apical meristem
b) lateral meristem
c) secondary meristem
d) intercalary meristem

6. Multilayered epidermis on both ventral as well as dorsal side is present in
a) Magnifera indica
b) Zea mays
c) Ficus bengalensis
d) Amaltas

7. Bulliform cells are found in the leaves of
a ) sunflower
b) Wheat
c) potato
d) Tinospora

8. Increase in girth in woody plants is due to the activity of
a) Cork cambium
b) Procambium
c) Fascicular cambium
d) All of these

9. Casparian strips present in
a)pericycle
b)endodermis
c)hypodermis
d)collenchyma

10. Grafting is not possible in monocotyledons because they
 a) lack cambium
b) have parallel bundles
c) are herbaceous
d) have scattered vascular bundles
Learn more:

Answers
1. b) heart wood
2. c) lateral meristem
3. b) suberin
4. d) cucubitaceae
5. d) intercalary meristem
6. b) Zea mays
7. d) Tinospora
8. a) Cork cambium
9. b)endodermis
10. d) have scattered vascular bundles
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MCQ on Antigen and Antibody

1. The second most abundant Ig is
a) IgM
b) IgG
c) IgA
d) IgE

2. The most effective Ig is
a) IgM
b) IgG
c) IgA
d) IgE

3. IgM is a
a) pentamer with 10 antigen binding sites
b) tetramer with 8 antigen binding sites
c) monomer with 2 antigen binding sites
d) dimer with 4 antigen binding sites

4.The Ig that mediates allergic reaction is
a) IgM
b) IgG
c) IgA
d) IgE

5. The Ig involved in host defence against parasitic infection (helminths)
a) IgM
b) IgG
c) IgA
d) IgE

6. The bonds involved in antigen-antibody interactions are
a) weak hydrogen bonds and vanderwalls forces
b) strong covalent bonds
c) strong di- sulphide bonds
d) all of these

7. Which of the following statement is true
a) all immunogens are antigens but all antigens are not immunogens
b) all immunogens are antigens and all antigens are immunogens
c) all immunogens are not antigens but all antigens are immunogens
d) all immunogens are proteins and all proteins are immunogens

8. Any agents that may stimulate the immune system and enhance the response without having any specific antigenic effect by itself.
a) antigens
b) allergens
c) adjuvants
d) carriers

9. Small chemical groups on the antigen molecule that can react with antibody
a) epitope
b) paratope
c) isotope
d) allotope

10. Which of the statements are true regarding antigen
a) generally self-molecules and molecules with low molecular weight are non-immunogenic
b) an antigen generally has many epitopes
c) heteropolymers are more immunogenic than homopolymers
d) all of these

Answers
1. c) IgA
2. a) IgM
3. a) pentamer with 10 antigen binding sites
4. d) IgE
5. d) IgE
6. a) weak hydrogen bonds and vanderwalls forces
7. a) all immunogens are antigens but all antigens are not immunogens
8. c) adjuvants
9. a) epitope
10. d) all of these
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Multiple Choice Questions on Vegetative Propagation in Plants

1. Which of the following statement is true regarding vegetative propagation?
a)      Vegetative propagation occurs naturally and artificially producing genetically identical plants
b)      Vegetative propagation occurs naturally and artificially producing genetically different plants
c)       Vegetative propagation occurs artificially producing genetically similar plants
d)      Vegetative propagation occurs naturally producing genetically similar plants

      2. All the following plants can be propagated by leaf cuttings except
a)      Begonia
b)      Hibiscus
c)       Bryophyllum
d)      Sansiveria

      3. Which of the following method is commonly practiced for root induction?
a)      Cutting
b)      Layering
c)       Grafting
d)      Budding

4. Rooting in stem cuttings are stimulated by using
           a) jasmonic acid b) ABA c) ethylene d) IAA
5. ‘Conifer cuttings’ are practiced for propagating pine, spruce etc. They are usually taken during
a) early spring
b) early winter
c) late spring
d) late winter

6. The method of inducing rooting by girdling aerial branches is called air layering. Air layering is also called as
a) gootee
b) Chinese layering
c) pot layering
d) all of these

7. The method of layering in which rooting is induced at different nodes simultaneously in the soil is called compound layering. It is also called as
a) air layering
b) serpentine layering
c) trench layering
d) mound layering

8. Which of the following method is suitable for combining the desirable characters of two plants together in  a single plant
a) cutting
b) layering
c) grafting
d) all of these

9. Identify the diagram

a) layering
b) approach grafting
c) wedge grafting
d) tongue grafting

10. In grafting, the rooted plant is called the stock. The stem cutting from the donor plant is called
a) transplant
b) scion
c) bud graft
d) root stock

Answers:
1. a) Vegetative propagation occurs naturally and artificially producing genetically identical plants
2. b) Hibiscus
3. b) Layering
4. d) IAA
5. b) early winter
6. d) all of these
7. b) serpentine layering
8.  c) grafting
9.  c) wedge grafting
10. b) scion
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Multiple Choice Questions on Enzymology

1. The degree of inhibition for non competitive inhibition of an enzyme catalyzed reaction?
a) Increase with increase substrate concentration
b) Reaches with increase in substrate concentration
c) Reaches a maxima with increase in substrate concentration and then decreases
d) Decreases with increase in substrate concentration

2. Enzyme papain is used with success to
a) increase meat production
b) ripen papaya fruit
c) leaven bread
d) tenderize meat

3. Which one of the following reactions used for the purpose of recycling enzymes in bioprocesses
a) isomerization
b) phosphorylation
c) immbolization
d) polymerization

4. Which one of the following techniques is not ideal for immobilized cell free enzymes?
a) physical entrapment by encapsulation
b) physical bonding by flocculation
c) covalent chemical bonding by cross linking the precipitate
d) covalent surface bonding to surface carriers

5. Most industrial enzymes are obtained from
a) plants
b) microbes
c) insects
d) animal tissues

6. Ki indicates
a) reaction velocity
b) Competition inhibition
c) denaturation of enzyme
d) all the above

7. The phenomenon by which the synthesis of a set of enzyme leading to a product from outside is known as
a) repression
b) suppression
c) depression
d)none of these

8. De novo synthesis of an enzyme, promoted by the substrate on which it acts, is characterised by the term
a) induction
b) activation
c) gratuity
d)derepression

9. Out of total enzymes present in the cell mitochondria alone has

a) 4%
b) 70%
c) 95%
d) no enzymes

10. Enzymes, vitamins and hormones can be classified into a single category of biological chemicals because all of them
a) Aid in regulating metabolism
b) Are synthesised in organism
c) Are proteins
d) Enhance the oxidation metabolism
Learn more:
Answers
1. c) Reaches a maxima with increase in substrate concentration and then decreases
2. d) tenderize meat
3. c) immbolization
4. b) physical bonding by flocculation
5. b) microbes
6. b) Competition inhibition
7. a) repression
8. a) induction
9. b) 70%
10. c) are proteins
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MCQ on Animal Biotechnology

1. In animal cell cultures, the addition of serum to media is essential for providing?
a) growth factors
b) amino acid for protein synthesis
c) nucleotide for DNA synthesis
d) all of these

2. cdc mutant useful for the study of
a)various stages of cell cycle
b)homeodomain
c)Apoptosis only
d)chromosome break point

3. Recombinant DNA human health care product developed for treating haemophiliacs is
a) interferon
b) lymphokines
c) coaglutation factor IX
d) phytohemaglutinin

4. Which of the following has been produced commercially from mammalian culture?
a) insulin
b) renin
c) plasminogen activator
d)antibacterial antibody

5. A heterologous protein for its expression in the milk of a transgenic animal should be under the control of the promoter of the gene coding for 
a) preproinsulin
b) Lac Z
c)β globin
d) β lactoglobulin

6. Aminopterine is used during the production of hybridoma cells because it

a) Blocks the salvage pathway
b) Prevents the growth of B cells
c) Prevents the growth of myeloma cells
d) Blocks the synthesis of Ig by B cells

7. Antibody diversity is generated by
a) Allelic exclusion
b) Protein splicing
c) Somatic mutation
d) Interchromosomal recombination

8. Reverse vaccinology indicates
a) from antibody to vaccine development
b) from genome sequence to vaccine development
c) from antigenic polysaccharide to vaccine development
d) from antigenic protein to vaccine development

9. The culture fluid of 1000 to 5000 colonies of hybridoma are screened for monoclonal antibody by
P- Antigen capture analysis Q- Western blot analysis
R-Northern blot analysis S-antibody capture analysis
a) P, Q
b) R, S
c) Q, S
d) P, S

10. All of the following are produced by animal cells in culture and help the cells adhere to the culture dish except
a) collagen
b) glycoprotein
c) phospholipase A
d) hyaluronic acid
Learn more:

Answers
1.a) growth factors
2. a)various stages of cell cycle
3. c) coaglutation factor IX
4. c) plasminogen activator
5. d) β lactoglobulin
6. a) Blocks the salvage pathway
7. a) Allelic exclusion
8. d) from antigenic protein to vaccine development
9. d) P, S
10. c) phospholipase A
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Multiple Choice Questions on Genetic Engineering and Recombinant DNA technology

1. DNA sequencing is done by
DNA sequencing
a) Maxam Gilbert method
b) Sanger dideoxy method
c) Both a and b
d) Watson and Crick

2. A vector should have which of the following properties
i) MCS                   ii) Small size  iii) Multiple ori  iv)low replication speed
a) i, ii, iii               
b) ii, iii, iv
c) i, ii, iv
d) i, iii, iv

3. DNA staining is done by
a) Cystal violet
b) Giemsa staining
c) Methylene blue
d) Feulgen staining

4. Which of the following is not a restriction endonuclease?
a) Eco RI
b) DNA ligase
c) Hind III
d) Bam H1

5. Use of alkaline phosphatase is to
a) remove terminal phosphates from 3’end
b) remove terminal phosphates from 5’end
c) remove terminal phosphate from both end
d) All of these

6. The uptake of plasmid DNA into bacterial cell is facilitated in the presence of
a) calcium chloride
b) magnesium chloride
c) potassium chloride
d) all of these

7. Taq polymerase is used in PCR because of its
a) low thermal stability
b) high fidelity
c) high speed
d) high thermal stability

8. Introduction of recombinant DNA into bacterial cell by using current is called
a) transformation
b) electroporation
c) transformation
d) tranduction

9. Nick translation is done by
a) DNA polymerase I
b) DNA polymerase II
c) DNA ligase
d) Kinase

10. Telomeric sequences are found in
a) HAC
b) BAC
c) YAC
d) PAC
Answer
1. c) Both a and b
2. c) i, ii, iv
3. d) Feulgen staining
4. b) DNA ligase
5. d) all of these
6. a) calcium chloride
7. d) high thermal stability
8. b) electroporation
9. a) DNA polymerase I
10. c) YAC
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Multiple Choice Questions on Agricultural Biotechnology

1. Two bacteria most useful in genetic engineering are
a)Rhizobium and Azobacter
b)Nitrosomonas and Klebsilla
c)Escherichia and Agrobacterium
d)Rhizobium and Diplococcus
 
2. Transposon is known as
a)IS element
b)Jumping gene
c)conservative gene
d)co integrate gene
 
3. The uptake of plasmid DNA into the bacterial cell is facilitated by the presence of --- in the medium
a) Calcium Chloride
b) Potassium chloride
c) Magnesium chloride
d) none of these
 
4. The travel of gene expression and gene activation can be measured using which of the following?
a) Reporter gene
b) Marker gene
c)Gene sequences
d)Promoter element
 
5. The enzyme required to obtained wall free/ nacked protoplasts are
a) cellulase and proteinase
b) cellulase and pectinase
c) cellulase and amylase
d) amylase and pectinase
 
6. A synchronous culture is one in which the majority of cells proceed through
a) Lag phase
b) Log phase
c) exponential phase
d) each cell cycle phase (G1, S, G2 and M)
 
7. DNA molecules, identical except for different numbers of superhelical turns are called
a) Chain isomers
b) Topoisomers
c) Helical isomers
d) Geometrical isomers
 
8. Application of embryo culture is in
a) clonal propagation
b) Production of alkaloids
c) Production of soma clonal variation
d)overcoming hybridisation barrier

9. Haploid culture are got from

a) leaves
b) root tips
c) pollen grain
d) bud

10. Differentiation of shoot in plant tissue culture is controlled by
a)high auxin : cytokinin ratio
b) high cytokinin : auxin ratio
c) high gibberellin : cytokinin ratio
d) high gibberellin: auxin ratio
Learn more:
Answers
1.c) Escherichia and Agrobacterium
2.b) Jumping gene
3.a) Calcium Chloride
4.b) Marker gene
5.b) cellulase and pectinase
6.d) each cell cycle phase (G1, S, G2 and M)
7.b) Topoisomers
8.d) overcoming hybridisation barrier
9.c) pollen grain
10.b) high cytokinin : auxin ratio
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